Temperature, as a primary and important environmental parameter, is the temperature vary within which many chemical reactions and organic processes are optimized, and even the performance of some digital circuits is managed by temperature. Therefore, the measurement of temperature performs a pivotal function in experimentation and engineering, and quite a lot of strategies have been developed for its detection. Overall, temperature measurement and monitoring are key aspects of scientific research and engineering purposes.
Table of Contents

What is a temperature sensor?

Temperature Sensor Applications

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Thermostat

Thermometers

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

How to choose on a temperature sensor?

How to hold up the temperature sensor?

Summary

What is a temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is a temperature measuring gadget. It converts heat (temperature) into a readable kind such as an electrical signal such as current, voltage or resistance.
Measuring instrument close up in industry zone

Temperature Sensor Applications

Industrial

Medical area

Environmental monitoring

Electronic gear

Food and beverage trade

Pharmaceutical business

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature sensors take temperature readings via an electrical signal. They contain two metals that produce a change in voltage or resistance when the temperature modifications. Temperature sensor work relies on measuring the voltage throughout the terminals of a diode. As the voltage increases, the temperature will increase accordingly, at which point there’s a lower in voltage between the terminals and emitter of the transistor.
Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Contact Temperature Sensors

A contact temperature sensor is a sensor that should be in direct contact with the item to be measured in order to measure its temperature. Contact temperature sensors utilize totally different physical properties (e.g., resistance, voltage, current, etc.) for temperature measurement, and their changes can mirror the temperature of the item to be measured.
Thermocouples

Thermocouple temperature sensors are most commonly utilized in industrial, automotive, and on a regular basis household purposes. Because they are self-powered, they don’t require excitation, have fast response instances, and may function over the widest temperature ranges (-328 to 3182 °F/-200 °C to 1750 °C). A thermocouple is a ring of two totally different metallic wires wound collectively to produce a voltage change between the 2 metals that is proportional to the temperature change.
Thermocouples are produced from a quantity of completely different materials, allowing temperature sensors to measure completely different temperature ranges and sensitivities. The most commonly used thermocouple sensor is the K-type, and all other thermocouples are also designated utilizing the letters (J, R, and T).
Thermistors

A thermistor, just like an RTD, is a resistor whose resistance changes with temperature. They are often made from a polymer or ceramic coated with a glass floor, which is why they’re cheaper and fewer accurate than RTDs. There are two main forms of thermistors: optimistic temperature coefficient (PTC) and unfavorable temperature coefficient (NTC).
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors are the commonest sort and are characterized by a lower in resistance because the temperature will increase. This is as a outcome of at higher temperatures, the number of carriers (electrons and holes) within the semiconductor material will increase, which lowers the resistance. Glass-encapsulated thermistors have an operating range of -72.4 to 482 °F (-50 to 250 °C), and standard thermistors have an working range as high as 302 °F (150 °C).
Apure PCT Thermocouple Temperature Transmitters with RTDs and thermocouples are field-installed temperature transformer units with a two-wire method with non-linear correction circuitry for direct measurement in industrial processes.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a temperature sensor that operates on the precept of measuring temperature by utilizing the property of resistance to change with temperature. The resistance of a metallic conductor is proportional to its absolute temperature over a given temperature vary. The corresponding temperature may be determined by measuring the resistance.RTDs are usually made from pure metals, particularly platinum, which has very good stability and linearity over a big temperature vary.
RTD Configuration:
Two-wire: Used when lead lengths are short sufficient that resistance does not have an effect on accuracy.
Three-wire: This configuration provides an RTD probe to carry the excitation present, thus providing a way to get rid of line resistance.
Four-wire: This wire eliminates line resistance by combining separate drive and sense leads. This is the most accurate configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

AdvantagesDisadvantages

High precisionLow sensitivity

Linear outputHigher value

Long-term stabilityHigher necessities for present sources

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD Table

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Semiconductor-based temperature sensors are usually integrated into integrated circuits (ICs). Two similar diodes with temperature-sensitive voltages monitor temperature modifications. IC sensors have a linear response, however they have the lowest temperature sensor accuracy. This is as a result of ICs have the slowest response over a narrow temperature vary (- -70 °C to one hundred fifty °C).
There are two types of IC:
Local Temperature Sensors: measure temperature using the physical properties of transistors. They can use analog or digital outputs.
Remote digital temperature sensors: measure the temperature of an external transistor. The transistor is located away from the sensor chip.
Thermostat

A thermostat is a tool that automatically adjusts the temperature, often based mostly on readings from temperature sensors (such as thermocouples, thermistors, or temperature-sensitive capacitors) that measure the temperature of the setting. When the measured temperature exceeds or falls below a set point, the thermostat prompts or shuts down heating or cooling equipment to take care of the specified temperature.
There are many kinds of thermostats available, including knob-type, digital, programmable, and sensible thermostats to fulfill the needs of various customers.
Thermometers

Bimetallic thermometer is a mechanical gadget for measuring temperature that takes benefit of the truth that two completely different metals have different coefficients of thermal enlargement. When the temperature modifications, the 2 metals within the bimetal increase or contract at totally different charges. Since the 2 metals are tightly certain collectively, this difference causes the complete bimetal to bend. In thermometers, this bimetal is usually made right into a spiral or curved form. As the temperature modifications, the degree of bimetal bending adjustments, and this alteration may be read instantly as a change in temperature.
Bimetal thermometers for temperature measurement

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-contact temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of an object with out direct contact with the target floor. They depend on the thermal energy radiated by the thing to measure temperature, the most common type being infrared (IR) temperature sensors.
Infrared temperature sensors: These sensors measure the depth of infrared radiation emitted by a target object to find out its temperature. They are best for use when an object is shifting or the temperature is just too excessive or too low, as they do not need to return into contact with the item itself.
Thermal imaging cameras: Thermal imaging cameras are also infrared sensors that measure and produce a two-dimensional picture of the temperature distribution on the floor of an object.
Non-contact temperature sensors are used in all kinds of commercial and scientific functions, together with temperature control of electronic gadgets, monitoring of chemical reactions, food quality control, and medical diagnostics.
Non-contact infrared sensors measure the temperature of commercial instruments

How to choose a temperature sensor?

Measuring range: Different temperature sensors have different measuring ranges. First determine the temperature vary that needs to be measured, and choose a sensor that can meet this vary.
Accuracy: Accuracy is another important selection factor for temperature sensors. Different sensor types have totally different accuracies. Typically, RTDs and thermistors have greater accuracies, while thermocouples have lower accuracies.
Environment: Temperature sensors are affected by their working setting, such as humidity, corrosive substances, excessive stress and different environmental circumstances.
Application: Application situations require a quick response to temperature changes, so it is essential to choose a sensor with a fast response time.
Valve stem (sheath): Thermocouples and RTDs are provided with 316 stainless steel rods and inner wiring coated with powdered ceramic. Screw head types can be found in two stem types: spring-loaded and welded. The spring-loaded stem is mounted to the underside of the thermocouple sleeve for optimum thermal sensitivity. pressure gauge octa are perfect for liquid functions.
How to maintain up the temperature sensor?

Periodic Sensor Cleaning

Periodic calibration

Check electrical connections

Avoid extreme environments

Record and analyze data

Summary

Which temperature sensor to make use of is dependent upon your utility and business, when you have any questions about temperature sensors or need temperature transmitter, feel free to contact Apure professional and technical team to provide an answer. We additionally provide instruments for water high quality evaluation, circulate meters, stage measurement, strain measurement, ozone mills and temperature controller.
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Temperature, as a basic and significant environmental parameter, is the temperature vary within which many chemical reactions and organic processes are optimized, and even the efficiency of some electronic circuits is controlled by temperature. Therefore, the measurement of temperature plays a pivotal role in experimentation and engineering, and quite so much of strategies have been developed for its detection. Overall, temperature measurement and monitoring are key elements of scientific analysis and engineering applications.
Table of Contents

What is a temperature sensor?

Temperature Sensor Applications

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Thermostat

Thermometers

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

How to choose on a temperature sensor?

How to hold up the temperature sensor?

Summary

What is a temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is a temperature measuring system. It converts warmth (temperature) right into a readable form similar to an electrical sign such as current, voltage or resistance.
Measuring instrument close up in business zone

Temperature Sensor Applications

Industrial

Medical area

Environmental monitoring

Electronic tools

Food and beverage business

Pharmaceutical industry

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature sensors take temperature readings via an electrical sign. They include two metals that produce a change in voltage or resistance when the temperature modifications. Temperature sensor work is predicated on measuring the voltage across the terminals of a diode. As the voltage will increase, the temperature will increase accordingly, at which level there’s a decrease in voltage between the terminals and emitter of the transistor.
Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Contact Temperature Sensors

A contact temperature sensor is a sensor that must be in direct contact with the thing to be measured to be able to measure its temperature. Contact temperature sensors make the most of completely different physical properties (e.g., resistance, voltage, present, and so forth.) for temperature measurement, and their changes can reflect the temperature of the thing to be measured.
Thermocouples

Thermocouple temperature sensors are most commonly used in industrial, automotive, and everyday household purposes. Because they’re self-powered, they don’t require excitation, have quick response occasions, and might operate over the widest temperature ranges (-328 to 3182 °F/-200 °C to 1750 °C). A thermocouple is a ring of two different metal wires wound together to provide a voltage change between the two metals that is proportional to the temperature change.
Thermocouples are created from numerous completely different materials, allowing temperature sensors to measure different temperature ranges and sensitivities. The mostly used thermocouple sensor is the K-type, and all different thermocouples are additionally designated utilizing the letters (J, R, and T).
Thermistors

A thermistor, similar to an RTD, is a resistor whose resistance modifications with temperature. They are usually made of a polymer or ceramic coated with a glass surface, which is why they’re cheaper and fewer correct than RTDs. There are two primary kinds of thermistors: positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and adverse temperature coefficient (NTC).
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors are the most common sort and are characterised by a lower in resistance as the temperature will increase. This is as a outcome of at larger temperatures, the number of carriers (electrons and holes) in the semiconductor materials will increase, which lowers the resistance. Glass-encapsulated thermistors have an operating vary of -72.4 to 482 °F (-50 to 250 °C), and standard thermistors have an operating range as high as 302 °F (150 °C).
Apure PCT Thermocouple Temperature Transmitters with RTDs and thermocouples are field-installed temperature transformer models with a two-wire methodology with non-linear correction circuitry for direct measurement in industrial processes.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a temperature sensor that operates on the precept of measuring temperature by utilizing the property of resistance to change with temperature. The resistance of a metallic conductor is proportional to its absolute temperature over a given temperature vary. The corresponding temperature could be decided by measuring the resistance.RTDs are normally made of pure metals, especially platinum, which has superb stability and linearity over a big temperature range.
RTD Configuration:
Two-wire: Used when lead lengths are quick sufficient that resistance does not affect accuracy.
Three-wire: This configuration provides an RTD probe to hold the excitation current, thus providing a method to remove line resistance.
Four-wire: This wire eliminates line resistance by combining separate force and sense leads. This is essentially the most correct configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

AdvantagesDisadvantages

High precisionLow sensitivity

Linear outputHigher worth

Long-term stabilityHigher necessities for current sources

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD Table

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Semiconductor-based temperature sensors are usually integrated into integrated circuits (ICs). Two equivalent diodes with temperature-sensitive voltages monitor temperature adjustments. IC sensors have a linear response, however they have the lowest temperature sensor accuracy. This is as a end result of ICs have the slowest response over a slender temperature range (- -70 °C to 150 °C).
There are two types of IC:
Local Temperature Sensors: measure temperature using the bodily properties of transistors. They can use analog or digital outputs.
Remote digital temperature sensors: measure the temperature of an exterior transistor. The transistor is located away from the sensor chip.
Thermostat

A thermostat is a tool that mechanically adjusts the temperature, normally based mostly on readings from temperature sensors (such as thermocouples, thermistors, or temperature-sensitive capacitors) that measure the temperature of the surroundings. When the measured temperature exceeds or falls below a set level, the thermostat activates or shuts down heating or cooling equipment to keep up the specified temperature.
There are many kinds of thermostats available, together with knob-type, digital, programmable, and smart thermostats to fulfill the wants of different customers.
Thermometers

Bimetallic thermometer is a mechanical gadget for measuring temperature that takes advantage of the truth that two completely different metals have different coefficients of thermal growth. When the temperature modifications, the 2 metals within the bimetal broaden or contract at different charges. Since the 2 metals are tightly bound collectively, this difference causes the whole bimetal to bend. In thermometers, this bimetal is usually made right into a spiral or curved form. As the temperature adjustments, the diploma of bimetal bending adjustments, and this alteration may be read directly as a change in temperature.
Bimetal thermometers for temperature measurement

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-contact temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of an object with out direct contact with the target floor. They rely on the thermal vitality radiated by the item to measure temperature, the most common type being infrared (IR) temperature sensors.
Infrared temperature sensors: These sensors measure the depth of infrared radiation emitted by a target object to determine its temperature. They are excellent for use when an object is moving or the temperature is too high or too low, as they do not want to come into contact with the object itself.
Thermal imaging cameras: Thermal imaging cameras are also infrared sensors that measure and produce a two-dimensional image of the temperature distribution on the surface of an object.
Non-contact temperature sensors are used in all kinds of industrial and scientific functions, including temperature control of digital gadgets, monitoring of chemical reactions, food high quality control, and medical diagnostics.
Non-contact infrared sensors measure the temperature of business devices

How to choose a temperature sensor?

Measuring vary: Different temperature sensors have totally different measuring ranges. First decide the temperature vary that needs to be measured, and select a sensor that may meet this vary.
Accuracy: Accuracy is another essential selection issue for temperature sensors. Different sensor sorts have completely different accuracies. Typically, RTDs and thermistors have larger accuracies, whereas thermocouples have lower accuracies.
Environment: Temperature sensors are affected by their operating surroundings, corresponding to humidity, corrosive substances, high stress and different environmental situations.
Application: Application situations require a quick response to temperature changes, so it is very important choose a sensor with a quick response time.
Valve stem (sheath): Thermocouples and RTDs are provided with 316 stainless-steel rods and internal wiring coated with powdered ceramic. Screw head types can be found in two stem sorts: spring-loaded and welded. The spring-loaded stem is mounted to the underside of the thermocouple sleeve for optimum thermal sensitivity. Welded stems are excellent for liquid functions.
How to maintain the temperature sensor?

Periodic Sensor Cleaning

Periodic calibration

Check electrical connections

Avoid extreme environments

Record and analyze data

Summary

Which temperature sensor to use depends on your utility and business, if you have any questions about temperature sensors or want temperature transmitter, be at liberty to contact Apure skilled and technical staff to provide an answer. We also provide devices for water high quality evaluation, circulate meters, level measurement, pressure measurement, ozone generators and temperature controller.
Extended reading:
Dissolved Oxygen Probe How It Works?

Surface Water vs Groundwater

What Is Municipal Water?

Types of level measurement transmitters