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บทความ เกจวัดแรงดัน

Preventing Water Hammer With Variable Speed Actuators

Water hammer is normally a major concern in pumping methods and must be a consideration for designers for several reasons. If not addressed, it may possibly trigger a host of issues, from broken piping and helps to cracked and ruptured piping components. At worst, it could even cause injury to plant personnel.
What Is Water Hammer?

Water hammer happens when there’s a surge in strain and flow fee of fluid in a piping system, inflicting speedy changes in pressure or force. High pressures may end up in piping system failure, similar to leaking joints or burst pipes. Support elements can even expertise strong forces from surges or even sudden flow reversal. Water hammer can happen with any fluid inside any pipe, however its severity varies relying upon the conditions of both the fluid and pipe. Usually this occurs in liquids, however it might possibly also happen with gases.
How Does Water Hammer Occur & What Are the Consequences?

Increased stress happens every time a fluid is accelerated or impeded by pump condition or when a valve place modifications. Normally, this pressure is small, and the speed of change is gradual, making water hammer practically undetectable. Under some circumstances, many kilos of pressure may be created and forces on supports may be nice enough to exceed their design specifications. Rapidly opening or closing a valve causes pressure transients in pipelines that may end up in pressures properly over regular state values, causing water surge that can critically damage pipes and course of management equipment. The significance of controlling water hammer in pump stations is widely known by utilities and pump stations.
Preventing Water Hammer

Typical water hammer triggers embrace pump startup/shutdown, power failure and sudden opening/closing of line valves. A simplified model of the flowing cylindrical fluid column would resemble a metal cylinder abruptly being stopped by a concrete wall. Solving these water hammer challenges in pumping techniques requires either reducing its effects or preventing it from occurring. There are many solutions system designers want to hold in mind when growing a pumping system. Pressure tanks, surge chambers or related accumulators can be used to soak up strain surges, that are all useful instruments within the battle towards water hammer. However, stopping the stress surges from occurring within the first place is usually a greater technique. This may be achieved by utilizing a multiturn variable speed actuator to control the velocity of the valve’s closure fee on the pump’s outlet.
The advancement of actuators and their controls present alternatives to use them for the prevention of water hammer. Here are three circumstances the place addressing water hammer was a key requirement. In all circumstances, a linear characteristic was important for circulate management from a high-volume pump. If this had not been achieved, a hammer impact would have resulted, doubtlessly damaging the station’s water system.
Preventing Water Hammer in Booster Pump Stations

Design Challenge

The East Cherry Creek Valley (ECCV) Southern Booster Pump Station in Colorado was fitted with high-volume pumps and used pump examine valves for move control. To keep away from water hammer and probably critical system harm, the appliance required a linear flow characteristic. The design challenge was to obtain linear move from a ball valve, which typically displays nonlinear flow characteristics as it’s closed/opened.
Solution

By utilizing a variable speed actuator, valve position was set to achieve totally different stroke positions over intervals of time. With this, the ball valve could possibly be driven closed/open at various speeds to realize a extra linear fluid move change. Additionally, in the event of a power failure, the actuator can now be set to shut the valve and drain the system at a predetermined emergency curve.
The variable pace actuator chosen had the aptitude to control the valve position based mostly on preset occasions. The actuator could be programmed for as much as 10 time set factors, with corresponding valve positions. The velocity of valve opening or closing could then be managed to make sure the desired set position was achieved on the appropriate time. This superior flexibility produces linearization of the valve traits, allowing full port valve selection and/or significantly reduced water hammer when closing the valves. The actuators’ built-in controls were programmed to create linear acceleration and deceleration of water throughout normal pump operation. Additionally, within the event of electrical energy loss, the actuators ensured rapid closure by way of backup from an uninterruptible energy provide (UPS). Linear move fee

change was additionally supplied, and this ensured minimal system transients and straightforward calibration/adjustment of the speed-time curve.
Due to its variable pace capability, the variable velocity actuator met the challenges of this installation. A travel dependent, adjustable positioning time provided by the variable velocity actuators generated a linear move via the ball valve. This enabled nice tuning of operating speeds by way of ten totally different positions to stop water hammer.
Water Hammer & Cavitation Protection During Valve Operation

Design Challenge

In the realm of Oura, Australia, water is pumped from a quantity of bore holes into a group tank, which is then pumped into a holding tank. Three pumps are each outfitted with 12-inch butterfly valves to regulate the water circulate.
To defend the valve seats from injury brought on by water cavitation or the pumps from operating dry in the event of water loss, the butterfly valves should be capable of fast closure. Such operation creates huge hydraulic forces, often recognized as water hammer. These forces are adequate to cause pipework injury and have to be avoided.
Solution

Fitting the valves with part-turn, variable pace actuators permits different closure speeds to be set during valve operation. When closing from absolutely open to 30% open, a speedy closure fee is set. To keep away from water hammer, through the 30% to 5% open phase, the actuator slows all the means down to an eighth of its previous velocity. Finally, in the course of the ultimate

5% to complete closure, the actuator hastens again to cut back cavitation and consequent valve seat injury. Total valve operation time from open to close is around three and a half minutes.
The variable speed actuator chosen had the potential to vary output speed based mostly on its position of travel. This superior flexibility produced linearization of valve characteristics, allowing easier valve selection and lowering water

hammer. The valve velocity is outlined by a maximum of 10 interpolation points which could be exactly set in increments of 1% of the open position. Speeds can then be set for up to seven values (n1-n7) based mostly on the actuator kind.
Variable Speed Actuation: Process Control & Pump Protection

Design Challenge

In Mid Cheshire, United Kingdom, a chemical company used several hundred brine wells, each utilizing pumps to transfer brine from the well to saturator units. The circulate is controlled using pump supply recycle butterfly valves pushed by actuators.
Under normal operation, when a reduced move is detected, the actuator which controls the valve is opened over a interval of 80 seconds. However, if a reverse circulate is detected, then the valve must be closed in 10 seconds to guard the pump. Different actuation speeds are required for opening, closing and emergency closure to make sure safety of the pump.
Solution

The variable speed actuator is ready to provide up to seven completely different opening/closing speeds. These can be programmed independently for open, close, emergency open and emergency shut.
Mitigate Effects of Water Hammer

Improving valve modulation is one answer to consider when addressing water hammer considerations in a pumping system. Variable speed actuators and controls present pump system designers the flexibleness to constantly control the valve’s working pace and accuracy of reaching setpoints, another task other than closed-loop control.
Additionally, emergency secure shutdown may be supplied using variable velocity actuation. With the potential of continuous operation using a pump station emergency generator, the actuation expertise can supply a failsafe possibility.
In different phrases, if an influence failure happens, the actuator will close in emergency mode in numerous speeds utilizing energy from a UPS system, allowing for the system to empty. The positioning time curves could be programmed individually for close/open direction and for emergency mode.
Variable pace, multiturn actuators are also a solution for open-close obligation conditions. This design can present a delicate begin from the start place and soft cease upon reaching the end position. This stage of management avoids mechanical pressure surges (i.e., water hammer) that can contribute to untimely component degradation. เกจวัดแรงดัน ’s capacity to provide this management positively impacts maintenance intervals and extends the lifetime of system elements.
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