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บทความ เกจวัดแรงดัน

Advancements in Real-Time Measurement of LNG Composition

Representing practically 1 / 4 of the worldwide energy mix, pure fuel performs an important function in assembly worldwide vitality wants. Throughout the natural gasoline provide chain, fuel producers require accurate real-time measurement of the composition of liquid natural gasoline (LNG) for in-process sampling or throughout transport for custody transfer.
LNG is comprised of methane with heavier parts such as ethane, propane, butane, and hint elements similar to sulfur compounds and aromatics. As such, knowledge on the composition and concentration of the elements within the combination can allow producers to extend process understanding and efficiency, improve high quality, and set up the value of the product.
The AIO system works with a broad selection of contact probes suitable for LNG applications.
THE IMPORTANCE OF REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT
The need for real-time measurement begins when natural gasoline is converted into liquid type utilizing a number of compressor trains for liquefaction and purification. Rundown lines then transfer LNG streams to storage tanks. By measuring the composition within the rundown, LNG producers better perceive the product that’s going into their tanks. This information enables them to foretell how the LNG will age and higher plan shipments by pipeline, practice, and rail.
Although there are established techniques used for this kind of measurement, these methods usually require samples to be extracted for testing, with results delayed for twenty minutes or longer. As a end result, Raman spectroscopy is quickly gaining traction as an environment friendly, dependable, and economical alternative that may produce accurate, real-time results.
RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY: THEN AND NOW
Since its discovery in the Twenties, Raman spectroscopy has revolutionized course of analysis with its nondestructive mode of operation and functionality to measure sample composition. Raman spectroscopy is a laser-based optical analysis technique used to measure compositions via the vibrational properties of molecules.
For a few years, nonetheless, Raman tools had the popularity for being costly, cumbersome, and tough to use. Now, developments within the stability and portability of solid-state Raman systems and technological improvements in lasers, optics, and detectors have made the method quicker and more accessible for real-time inline evaluation.
As a result, Raman is now increasingly getting used as a robust measurement resolution for LNG composition and concentration. When applied to inline processes, Raman spectroscopy can provide leads to seconds.
“Raman within the evaluation of LNG composition is a crucial development,” says Martin Mendez, lead analysis and improvement engineer at Analytical Solutions and Products B.V. (ASaP), an Amsterdam-based system integrator of LNG evaluation and sampling measurement systems used all over the world. “The use of Raman spectroscopy for LNG evaluation is relatively new, and it has already confirmed to be a extremely accurate, environment friendly, and usable compositional measurement software.”
The system can effectively stand up to direct contact with the sample even in extreme hot and cold environments, excessive pressure, and harsh corrosive situations.
RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY IN PRACTICE
Samples are collected utilizing a 785nm excitation laser and a contact BallProbe that produces a singular spectral fingerprint that identifies the chemical composition and molecular construction within the LNG. The distribution of the spectral peaks describes the molecule’s composition, while the sign intensity correlates linearly with focus.
For easy-to-use industrial Raman spectroscopy instrumentation, ASaP works with Seattle-based MarqMetrix. Founded in 2012 by scientists from the University of Washington, the corporate makes a speciality of compositional analysis utilizing Raman spectroscopy and has pioneered developments in Raman to be used in the power sector.
MarqMetrix has engineered its all-in-one (AIO) system to produce identical and repeatable results from unit to unit, in a package 80 percent smaller than previous Raman instruments. Each system is almost an actual copy so common mathematical models may be applied across systems to provide constant outcomes. Previous Raman techniques have been less dependable because every system required its personal mathematical mannequin and frequent recalibration for each installation.
The AIO system works with a extensive selection of contact probes appropriate for LNG applications. The company’s BallProbe is on the market in Hastelloy C-276—a nickel molybdenum-chromium superalloy to resist extreme bodily and chemical environments. The probe’s spherical sapphire lens can successfully face up to direct contact with the sample even in excessive hot and cold environments -256 to 662 levels Fahrenheit (-160 to 350 degrees Celsius), high stress (> 400 bar), and harsh corrosive circumstances.
“We work with MarqMetrix as a end result of they’ve a high-quality Raman instrument,” says Mendez. “The company’s immersion optic probes, that are extensively used all through the business, allow customers to attain reproducible measurements of samples higher than 1 percent accuracy.”
Each system is sort of an actual copy so widespread mathematical fashions can be applied across techniques.
DIRECT MEASUREMENT IN REAL TIME
Another important advantage of Raman spectroscopy is not having to take fuel samples offline for measurement. Traditional strategies like GC require an injection system to add a sample gas to a chromatography column that permits the elements to separate, and a detector to sense when a component is existing the system. But first, the LNG should be converted from liquid to gaseous state with out partial vaporization before a dependable measurement could be made.
With a Raman system, no consumables are required for testing. “ เกจวัดแรงดันคือ is positioned directly into the LNG with out having to control the fuel, take if offline, or introduce a carrier gas,” explains Mendez. “With fewer steps involved in measurement, the uncertainty is reduced therefore the measuring is far closer to the truth.”
Raman’s direct measurement of LNG produces readings every few seconds as in comparison with each three to five minutes or longer for conventional techniques.
“You want the real-time information, each time potential,” adds Mendez. “When it involves a custody switch, for instance, it’s best to take many consultant samples all through the complete offloading course of to a tanker or ship as possible.”
MarqMetrix has engineered its all-in-one (AIO) system to supply identical and repeatable results from unit to unit.
CALIBRATION AND PREDICTIVE MODELING
Although the MarqMetrix Raman gear can be used to identify the elements in LNG within approximately fifteen minutes of unboxing, quantifying the concentrations of each component first requires making a predictive model.
To do this, ASaP establishes the accuracy of the Raman tools at certainly one of its three analytical testing amenities by comparing it towards measurements produced by traditional GC gear, with LNG equipped from a nearby filling station.
MarqMetrix’s BallProbe is on the market in Hastelloy C-276—a nickel molybdenum-chromium superalloy to face up to extreme physical and chemical environments.
“We utilize licensed GC testing instruments to produce a reference value that we all know will be as near the actual value as attainable,” explains Mendez. “We then take a measurement utilizing the Raman tools and evaluate the 2 (correlate the 2 measurements to build the model). The subsequent step is to calibrate the Raman with a liquified major gas commonplace.”
“We take a selection of samples of LNG at completely different part concentrations and with the assistance of multivariate analysis we are in a position to create our predictive model,” provides Mendez. “Once the model has been validated, ASaP clients not want to make use of GC and might use Raman exclusively for instantaneous readings of the LNG composition.
Accurate measurement is nowhere extra important than ever within the LNG trade. Understanding the chemical composition of raw materials and the consistency of processed products. With เกจวัดแรงดันน้ำมันเบนซิน made in applying Raman spectroscopy systems to sample measurement, LNG producers have a practical device for producing correct real-time compositional measurements for their in-process and in-transit LNG sampling wants.
“With the supply of easy-to-use industrial instrumentation, the edge to work with Raman spectroscopy has now turn into approachable and workable for LNG functions,” says Mendez.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
Marc Malone is vice president, business operations and technique for MarqMetrix. MarqMetrix works with a selection of recognizable global and private sector manufacturers throughout a mess of industries that embrace pharmaceuticals, oil and fuel, biotech, and food and beverage For extra information, call 206.971.3625 or go to www.marqmetrix.com.
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